Glass rock from volcanic areas. Obsidian from Milos was used by the Aegean’s inhabitants through the late Mycenaean era (c. 1100 BC) to make tools and weapons.


The manufacture and processing of metals and metal mixes from mineral ores.


Lead oxide; it was separated into silver and lead through a process known as cupellation, during which the liquid lead was poured into a special cup and oxidised, thus turning into lead oxide (PbO) – called litharge in ancient Greece – while the silver remained...

Sea current

This refers specifically to the cold Pontic current spilling from the Black Sea into the Aegean. Generated by northern and northwestern winds, it flows past Halkidiki and continues south, where it splits into two currents: one flows between Evia and Andros down to the...


Silver coins minted in ancient Athens with the goddess of Athena on the obverse and an owl, or glaux, on the reverse. The exploitation of the mines from which the silver was extracted spanned the sixth to second centuries BC.

Scattered city

Term used to describe the Aegean islands and their nearest mainland coast where there is “perpetual toing and froing of people, goods, and shops from one island to the next in an economic osmosis” (Spyros Asdrachas).